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DM Villalpando, R Navarro, L Del Campo, C Largo, D Muñoz, M Tabernero, R Baeza, C Otero, HS García and M Ferrer
Benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) against cardiovascular diseases have been reported. Vascular tone regulation is largely mediated by endothelial factors whose release is modulated by sex hormones. Since the incidence of cardiovascular pathologies has been correlated with decreased levels of sex hormones, the aim of this study was to analyze whether a diet supplemented with the specific PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could prevent vascular changes induced by an impaired gonadal function. For this purpose, control and orchidectomized rats were fed with a standard diet supplemented with 5% (w/w) sunflower oil or with 3% (w/w) sunflower oil plus 2% (w/w) DHA. The lipid profile, the blood pressure, the production of prostanoids and nitric oxide (NO), and the redox status of biological samples from control and orchidectomized rats, fed control or DHA-supplemented diet, were analyzed. The vasodilator response and the contribution of NO, prostanoids and hyperpolarizing mechanisms were also studied. The results showed that orchidectomy negatively affected the lipid profile, increased the production of prostanoids and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreased NO production and the antioxidant capacity, as well as the participation of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the vasodilator responses. The DHA-supplemented diet of the orchidectomized rats decreased the release of prostanoids and ROS, while increasing NO production and the antioxidant capacity, and it also improved the lipid profile. Additionally, it restored the participation of hyperpolarizing mechanisms by activating potassium. Since the modifications induced by the DHA-supplemented diet were observed in the orchidectomized, but not in the healthy group, DHA seems to exert cardioprotective effects in physiopathological situations in which vascular dysfunction exists.
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Reactive oxygen species, Polyunsaturated fat, Fat, Trans fat, Antioxidant, Nitric oxide, Oxygen, Nutrition
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